Sir Isaac Newton in his 1687 Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica published observations that would form the foundation of classical mechanics. Perhaps most famously, Newton,s book lays out the law of universal gravitation. But just as important, the Principia puts forth Newton,s three laws of motion and energy.
The first law says that an object will retain its state of motion unless some external force acts on it. If it’s moving, it will keep moving; if at rest, it will remain so.
The second law describes how much force is required to achieve a given change in the velocity of a particular mass (Force=Mass X Acceleration). Put another way, it predicts the acceleration of a mass when a given fore is applied. Newton’s third law asserts that for every action, there is a reaction, there is a reaction of equal magnitude in the opposite direction.
” If i have seen further ” Newton wrote, ” it is by standing on the shoulder of giants.’ Newton did draw deeply on the work of earlier philosophers, physicists, and mathematicians. But it was he who showed that the physical world is governed by universal, mathematical laws – and who began to set down those laws in elegant formulations borne out by centuries of observation. Newton’s laws advanced the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century and laid a foundation for the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century.
These laws describe the behavior of idealized particles or points. Objects can often be treated as points when studying motion, but their movement involves more complex dynamics. A half – century after Newton, Swiss physicist Leonhard Euler extended Newton’s work in two laws that describe the movement of bodies made up of an assemblage of points.
RESISTANT TO CHANGE – NEWTON;S FIRST LAW OF MOTION
Absent some force acting on it, a ball sitting on the floor will just sit there. A ball rolling along a perfectly fric tionless and even surface will likewise continue rolling, in the same direction and at the same speed, indefinitely.
Indeed, according to Newton’s first law of motion – more familiarly known as the law of inertia – all objects inherently resist change in their state of motion. A thing at rest remains at rest, and an object in motion keeps moving in the same direction and at the same speed, unless some outside force disrupts it.
SEGWAY – Newton’s First Law of Motion
Unveiled in 2001, the Segway PT ( Personal Transporter ) is a two wheeled, self – balancing, electric powered vehicle designed to mimic the naturalness of walking and turning – and maybe even pausing to smell the roses. Its movement responds to subtle shifts in the user’s body weight forward, backward, and to the side while remaining upright. Riders steer by learning in the direction they want to go. This balancing act involves a high – tech elaboration o Newton’s law of inertia. It’s based on five miniature silicon gyroscopic devices coupled with electronic sensors that monitor change in the pitch of the vehicle’s platform in comparison with the inertial movement of the gyroscopes.