Why does a country need a Constitution?

Today most countries in the world have a Constitution. While all democratic countries are likely to have Constitution, it is not necessary that all countries that have a Constitution are democratic. The Constitution serves several purposes. First, it lays out certain ideals that form the basis of the kind of country that we as citizens aspire to live in. Or put another way, a Constitution tells us what the fundamental nature of our society is. A country is usually made up of different communities of people who share certain beliefs but may not necessarily agree on all issues. A Constitution helps serves as a set of rules and principles that all persons in a country can agree upon as the basis of the way in which they want the country to be governed. This includes not only the type of government but also an agreement on certain ideals that they all believe the country should uphold.

A Constitution is to define the nature of a country’s political system. In countries that have adopted a democratic form of government of polity, the Constitution plays a crucial role in laying out certain important guidelines that govern decision – making within these societies.

in 1934, The Indian National Congress made the demand for a Constituent Assembly. During the Second World War, this assertion for and independent Constituent Assembly formed only of Indians gained momentum and this was covered in December 1946. The photo on page 2 shows some members of the Constituent Assembly. Between December 1946 and November 1949, the Constituent 1946 and November 1949, the Constituent Assembly drafted a constitution for independent India. Free to shape their destiny at last, after 150 years of British rule, the members of the Constituent Assembly approached this task with the great idealism that the freedom struggle had helped produce. You will read more about the work of the Constituent Assembly later in the chapter. The photo alongside shows Prime Minister Jawaharlal Neharu addressing The Constituent Assembly.

In a democracy, we choose our leaders so that they can exercise power responsibility on our behalf. However, there is always the possibility that these leaders might misuse their authority and the dian  usually provides safeguards against this.

In democratic societies, the Constitution often lays down rules that guard against this misuse of authority by our political leaders.

The Indian Constitution guarantees the right to equality to all persons and says that no can be discriminated against on grounds of religion, race, caste, gender, and place of birth. The Right to Equality is one of the Fundamental Rights guaranteed by the Indian Constitution.

Another important function that a Constitution  plays in a democracy is to ensure that a dominate group does not use its power against other, less powerful people or groups. In the situations where a majority can continuously enforce decisions that exclude minorities and go against there interests. The Constitution usually contains rules that ensure that minorities are not excluded from anything that is routinely available to the majority.

The Constitution helps to protect us against certain decisions that we might take that could have an adverse effect on the larger principles that the country believes in. A good constitution does not allow these whims to change its basic structure.It does not allow for the easy overthrow of provisions that guarantee rights of citizens and protect their freedom.

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